Authors : S. V. Hajare and A.A. Kulkarni
Page Nos : 207-217
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants. With the growing industrialization and urbanization, organic pollutants are accumulated in the aquatic ecosystem and fresh water bodies through the industrial discharges, untreated domestic effluents, agricultural runoff which includes pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers. These are responsible for adding excess nutrient load and change the quality of water and also causes negative effects on aquatic ecosystem as well as organisms which are depend on it. Similarly heavy metals, radio nucleotides which are released into the land and water reservoirs through nuclear power plants in accidental cases and their long term exposure to humans is detrimental as they are carcinogenic. There are several conventional methods such as coagulation and filtration, chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, evaporations and membrane processes to minimize these contaminants but they might be including improper handling, disposal problem of sludge and high capital cost. Use of algae to minimize the contaminants or to detoxify the polluted water bodies is a more promising, ecofriendly and cost-effective method also known as phycoremediation. In this current review we will highlight on various methods used to assess the bioremediation potential of some micro algae in treatment of industrial effluents.